2013 Reprint of 1950 Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. This book is a collection of four essays published by Pareto regarding the ruling class in Italy. The major essay is in English and the rest are in French. Essays include: 1. The Parliamentary Regime in Italy. 2. Lettre d'Italie [two essays] 3. L'Etatisme en Italie It is a basic axiom for Pareto that people are unequal physically, as well as intellectually and morally. In society as a whole, and in any of its particular strata and groupings, some people are more gifted than others. Those who are most capable in any particular grouping are the elite. The term "elite" denotes simply a class of the people who have the highest indices in their branch of activity. Pareto argues that "It will help if we further divide that [elite] class into two classes: a governing elite, comprising individuals who directly or indirectly play some considerable part in government, and a non- governing elite, comprising the rest." His main discussion focuses on the governing elite.