'Have you got any ideas on how to make a better banknote?' In the late 1960s, the detection of counterfeit banknotes and the rise of new photographic and copying technologies prompted the Reserve Bank of Australia to explore options for increasing the security of currency. A top-secret research project, undertaken by CSIRO and the Bank, resulted in the development of the world’s first successful polymer banknotes. This technology is now used in over 30 countries. This book describes the story of the Currency Notes Research and Development project from its inception in 1968 through to the release of the $10 Australian bicentennial plastic banknote in 1988. It exemplifies a market-driven project which resulted in advances in science, technology and approaches to commercialisation, and a fundamental change in banknote security.