The United States is a maritime nation. From its origin as 13 former colonies to its place as the pre-eminent world power today, our Nation's success has been dependent on our coastal ports and inland waterways to conduct trade. Recognising the importance of transportation to trade, the Nation had made a strong intergenerational commitment to develop its transportation networks. These networks of highways, railways and inland waterways connect the interior of our country to our ports, which connect us to the rest of the world. These transportation networks have contributed to our success by providing a cost-efficient and environmentally sustainable means to transport large quantities of cargo over long distances and across oceans, keeping this Nation competitive in world trade. This book provides an analysis of the broad challenges and opportunities presented by the increasing deployment of post-Panamax vessels and outlines options on how Congress could address the port and inland waterway infrastructure modernisation issues needed to accommodate those vessels.